The Brexit for the UK, the EU and Morocco
In the referendum of 23 June, the British voted 51.9% the Brexit, that is to say the output of the United Kingdom of the European Union. Recall that the latter is an association of 28 European states have delegated by treaty the exercise of certain powers to common institutions. Originally, the goal was to create a peaceful and prosperous Europe. The means were the free movement of persons, goods, services and financial flows. The Union has also developed common policies in areas such as agriculture, and aimed the economic and social development of member countries. European integration began with the Treaty of Rome in 1957 with just six founding countries: Germany, Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands. Over the last sixty years, the EU has expanded to 22 members, including 8 countries of Eastern Europe after their independence vis-à-vis the former Soviet Union. Two important milestones have marked the European construction: the signing in 1985 of the Schengen Agreement, which allows free movement without passport and the adoption of a common currency the euro in 1999, which is used by 19 countries on 28 the Union. Value today, the balance sheet of the European Union is mixed. If the EU remains the first commercial power in the world and that several member countries have made significant progress, it suffers from many negative elements. Indeed, it failed political integration and defense, and its economic and disappointing assessment that growth is much lower than in other continents of the planet. It is mostly blamed red tape, and too much involvement of European institutions in the member countries affairs. Hence the rise of euro-skepticism in many member countries of the Union.
The history of relations between the UK and the European Union is rather special. Recall that General de Gaulle in a speech on January 14, 1963 refused the entry of the UK into the European Community stating that this would cause problems in a very large “. Finally admitted to the Union in 1973, the UK was a bad student wishing only the establishment of a free trade area. Thus he did not participate in the Schengen Agreement or the single currency the euro, and has always opposed to any deepening of the Union. Despite the numerous derogations obtained from the European Union, a strong movement of Euroscepticism has developed in the United Kingdom encouraged by the UKIP (UK Independence Party), which has also affected the traditional conservative and labor parties . Thus David Cameron, Conservative Prime Minister promised during the parliamentary elections in 2015 to organize a referendum on maintaining the UK in the European Union. Despite new exceptions that could get the European and an active campaign Uniting for is finally Brexit who won with 51.9% of votes and a participation of 72% of voters.
The terms of the release of a member of the European Union are set out in Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty. This states that ‘any Member State may decide in accordance with its constitutional requirements to withdraw from the Union. ” That Member State must formally notify the European Council of its intention to withdraw, following which negotiations can intervene with the European Union. It is specified that the withdrawal becomes final from the date of entry into force of the withdrawal agreement or, failing two years after notification with the possibility to extend this period if both parties agree. Value today, the notice of withdrawal by the United Kingdom has not yet been made, David Cameron has said it would take place after the appointment by the Labour Party of a new Prime Minister in September 2016. If negotiations do take place, the United Kingdom has the choice of several scenarios: either the European economic Area (EEA) as is the case of Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway. The UK could also choose the model Switzerland, or the Agreement concluded by the European Union with Canada. No one can predict for now the model to be selected by the United Kingdom.
The Brexit had immediate consequences for the UK. The London Stock Exchange since June 24, 2016 decreased by 3.15% and the pound sterling lost 12% from its previous value of Brexit. The UK also lost the Triple A from two rating agencies. There is also risk of losing jobs to mainland Europe from the banks and offices of leading international companies. Even more serious are the institutional consequences as Scotland, Northern Ireland and Gibraltar are in favor of maintaining the EU. Citizens of the United Kingdom living in mainland Europe could also have problems to free movement, while their social security and retirement could be threatened. As for the European Union, the Brexit made him lose an important member since the UK is the second European power and the fifth world power. There is also the risk of a domino effect to the extent that other member countries would be tempted to leave the Union. For at least two years, the European Union will face a period of uncertainty and uncertainty, while negotiations with the United Kingdom will not be completed. Also, the remaining states of the European Union do they interest to restore the confidence of their people by boosting the economy, ensuring better management of migration and security. We must also think in the medium term a new refounding of the European Union to ensure its sustainability.
Morocco is bound by an Association Agreement with the European Union which includes the UK. The current status is the exemption of customs duties for industrial products and tariff quotas for agricultural products. This status will be maintained until new negotiations will not be concluded between Morocco and the United Kingdom. This is the 7th and 14th customer Morocco provider, while British investment in Morocco are very low in the order of 1% of total investments. Morocco could negotiate with the better export conditions UK for fruit and vegetables since the regulations of the European Union would no longer be applied.